Blood in the semen is the presence of blood in men’s ejaculation fluid, whether in very minute (microscopic) or noticeable amounts. The presence of blood in the semen is also known as hematospermia or hemospermia. Hematospermia may go unnoticed, thus it may be difficult to note its occurrence. In most cases, the cause is unknown, however, it is typically assumed to an infection or injury of or a blockage along the sperm tract. Although, blood in the semen is typically benign and will resolve on its own,it may also denote an underlying disease in the male genitourinary system.For men over age 40, it is strongly advised to seek medical advice for proper diagnosis.
Causes of Blood in the Semen
Damage to the male genitourinary system may lead to the presence of blood in the semen. It can also be caused by a variety of conditions affecting the aforementioned system. Included in the male genitourinary system are the bladder, urethra, testicles, seminal vesicles, epididymis, and the prostate gland. In many cases, the cause is not determined.The following may lead to hematospermia:
- Prostate gland biopsy (most common cause)
- Infections such as, sexually transmitted infections (e.g. gonorrhoea, chlamydia, etc.), and other bacterial/ viral/ parasitic infections
- Presence of stones in the prostate or seminal vesicles
- Presence of polyps in the urethra
- Presence of benign or malignant tumours in the genitourinary system
- Obstructions along the male genitourinary tract
- Anatomical or vascular abnormalities
- Medical conditions such as, leukemia, liver diseases, and hypertension, among others
- Physical trauma to the genitourinary tract
- Excessive sexual activity
Accompanying Symptoms of Blood in the Semen
The following symptoms should be watched out for in cases blood in the semen is observed. Not all symptoms may be present. Symptoms may be present in combinations or none at all, depending on the underlying cause:
- Penile discharge even when not stimulated
- Pain with ejaculation
- Pain with bowel movement
- Burning, painful sensationupon urination
- Blood in the urine (hematuria)
- Lower back pain
- Fever and/ or chills
- Swelling or tenderness in the groin region
- Swelling or tenderness in the scrotum
- Obvious injuries in the scrotum
Treatment for Blood in the Semen
Treatment for blood in the semen will depend on the underlying cause. Although not fatal in most cases, proper diagnosis is necessary for accurate treatment. Some of the treatments include:
- If it is caused by a recent urology procedure, it will generally resolve on its own.
- For minor injuries, rest a lot. Apply ice.
- In cases of infections, antibiotics are used for bacterial infections.
- Anti-inflammatory medications are generally prescribed for inflammatory conditions.
- In cases of tumours and abnormalities, surgery may be required.
Disclaimer: This article does not provide medical advice or treatment. The information given should not be used for self-diagnosis of the possible underlying problems or conditions. Seek medical attention when necessary. A keen eye for symptoms is necessary in all medical situations. To learn more about presence of blood in the semen and other discharges in the body, enrol in First Aid Courses with workplace approved training.